Tailings dams need to evolve over their life cycle, from planning, design, construction, operation, closure and post closure. There may also be periods of care and maintenance between operational phases.
The closure phase of a tailings dam can often exceed the operational phase. It may include transition from operations to active care such as ongoing water, geochemical and physical management to maintain integrity.
Over time, inactive TSFs may transition to passive care when the ongoing water, geochemical, and physical management requirements are reduced or eliminated.