Download our iron ore fact sheet to learn more about this sought after mineral. Find out about the properties of iron ore, how it is mined, and how it is converted into steel.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be extracted.
There are four main types of iron ore deposit: massive hematite, which is the most commonly mined, magnetite, titanomagnetite, and pisolitic ironstone.
These ores vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red.
Iron is responsible for the red colour in many of our rocks and the deep red sands of the Australian deserts, and is a key ingredient in steelmaking.
98% of iron ore is converted into pig iron for steel-making.
Steel can be used for:
Like in buildings, bridges and other infrastructure.
Like in ovens, washing machines, fridges and dishwashers.
Like in cars and trucks, trains, ships and planes.
Like in wind turbines and electricity pylons.
Iron ore is mixed with coke (from super-heated metallurgical coal) in a blast furnace.
Air that has been heated to around 1,200 degrees Celsius is injected into the furnace, creating a flame temperature of 2,000 degrees. This converts the iron ore to molten pig iron and slag.
Then, impurities are removed and alloying elements are added. The steel is then cast, cooled and rolled for use in finished products.
Iron ore undergoes a series of processes from pit to port before export.
Finding the ore
First, we explore the geology of the region to find the best iron ore prospects for our mining operations.
Once the ideal site has been chosen, the ore is drilled and blasted.
It is then transported to the primary crusher for processing.
Ore handling plant
The crushed ore is then sorted over screens and resized to different specifications, such as lump and fines products.
Once the iron ore is processed, a stacker builds a stockpile in the stockyards.
When ready for transportation, a reclaimer picks up the ore from the stockpiles and conveys it to train load out facilities.
Trains transport the iron ore to ports
The iron ore is then loaded on to ships at our port facilities and exported to our customers around the world.
The world will need iron ore for as long as the world needs steel.
In 2020, we produced around 280 million tonnes of iron ore.
That's enough to make the steel for more than 3,300 Sydney Harbour Bridges.
We're building a new iron ore mine in Western Australia.
When completed, South Flank will produce high-quality iron ore for around 25 years.
Our Western Australia Iron Ore business in the Pilbara region of Western Australia contains five mines, four processing hubs and two port facilities, all of which are connected by more than 1,000 kilometres of rail infrastructure.